Circumstantial evidence, particularly resemblance in town names, leads to the conclusion that the Ais language
was similar to that of the Calusa and the other south Florida tribes. It is believed that it was connected with the Muskhogean
Fontaneda speaks of a Biscayan named Pedro who had been held prisoner in Ais, evidently during the sixteenth
century, and spoke the Ais language fluently. Shortly after the Spaniards made their first establishments in the peninsula,
a war broke out with the Ais, but peace was concluded in 1570. In 1597 Governor Mendez de Canço, who traveled along
the entire east coast from the head of the Florida Keys to St. Augustine, reported that the Ais chief had more Indians under
him than any other. A little later the Ais killed a Spaniard and two Indians sent to them by Canço for which summary
revenge was exacted. Relations between the Floridian government and these Indians were afterward friendly but efforts to missionize
them uniformly failed.
Excerpt from: Access Genealogy: Florida Indian Tribes
From at least A.D. 1000, a group of farming Indians was living in northwest Florida. They were called the
Apalachees. Other Florida Indians regarded them as being wealthy and fierce. Some think the Apalachee language was related
to Hitchiti of the Muskhogean language family. The Apalachees' territory extended from the Aucilla River in the east to the
Ochlockonee River in the west.
Excerpt from: Florida Center for Instructional Technology: The Apalachees of Northwest Florida
The Calusa Indians were originally called the "Calos" which means "Fierce People." They
were descendants of Paleo-Indians who inhabited Southwest Florida approximately 12,000 years ago. During the Calusa's reign
the Florida coastline extended roughly 60 miles further into the Gulf of Mexico. Hardwood forests covered the land and the
climate was much colder than it is today. The Calusa inhabited a region abundant with bears, woolly mammoths, sloth, tortoises,
and saber-toothed tigers. Hunting these animals and gathering roots and fruit that grew on trees was a mainstay until they
discovered the waters contained a wealth of fish. This new food source required significantly less time than hunting and gathering
their food, and allowed the Calusa time to establish their own system of government. It was quite a complex structure involving
nobility, commoners, and slaves. Following this formation of a centralized government were the construction of a canal system,
the beginnings of organized religion, and the creating of many art forms.
Excerpt from: Absolutely Florida Websource: The Calusa Indians (The Shell People)
The Jeaga (YAY•gah) inhabited present-day Palm Beach County. Jonathan Dickson, who survived a shipwreck
on the coast near Jeaga land in 1698, described them as "fierce and bloody." The Jeaga depended on the sea for food.
from: FCAT Online, Social Studies, Glenco Online: People of Southeastern Florida
Along the lower Atlantic Coast was the home of many small tribes: the Tequestas of Biscayne Bay, the Ais and
the Jeagas up the coast, the Keys Indians, and the Mayaimi who built large mounded villages near Lake Okeechobee. Like the
Calusa, these tribes were fishermen and hunters rather than farmers.
Excerpt from: FloridaHistory.org: Florida of the Indians
The Potano tribe was anciently celebrated as, with one or two possible exceptions, the most powerful of all the Timucua
peoples. Located in the territory of the present Alachua County.
Excerpt from: Access Genealogy: Florida Indian Tribes
The Seminoles of Florida call themselves the "Unconquered People," descendants of just 300 Indians
who managed to elude capture by the U.S. army in the 19th century. Today, more than 2,000 live on six reservations in the
state – located in Hollywood, Big Cypress, Brighton, Immokalee, Ft. Pierce, and Tampa. Seminole history begins with
bands of Creek Indians from Georgia and Alabama who migrated to Florida in the 1700s. Conflicts with Europeans and other tribes
caused them to seek new lands to live in peace. Groups of Lower Creeks moved to Florida to get away from the dominance of
Upper Creeks. Some Creeks were searching for rich, new fields to plant corn, beans and other crops. For a while, Spain even
encouraged these migrations to help provide a buffer between Florida and the British colonies. The 1770s is when Florida Indians
collectively became known as Seminole, a name meaning "wild people" or "runaway."
Florida State Division of Historical Resources
The Tequesta were a small, peaceful, Native American tribe. They were one of the first tribes in South Florida
and they settled near Biscayne Bay in the present-day Miami area. They built many villages at the mouth of the Miami River
and along the coastal islands. The chief lived in the main village at the mouth of the Miami River.
Like the other tribes
in South Florida, the Tequesta were hunters and gatherers. They relied mainly on fish, shellfish, nuts, and berries for food.
The men caught sharks, sailfish, sea cows, and porpoises in the waters of Biscayne Bay and the Miami River, while the women
and children collected clams, conchs, oysters, and turtle eggs in the shallow waters. The sea cow (manatee) was considered
a delicacy and served mainly to the chiefs and other prominent leaders.
Excerpt from: Exploring Florida: The Tequesta of Biscayne Bay
The Timucua lived in large circular houses with palm-thatched roofs. Frequently, they built a wall of tall
wooden poles around their villages for protection against attack. Like most Native Americans, the Timucua had no written language.
from: FCAT Online, Social Studies, Glenco Online: The Timucua and the Apalachee
The Tocobaga Indians were a group of prehistoric and historic Native Americans living near Tampa Bay, Florida
up until roughly 1760.
The Tocobaga were not part of the Timucua culture which usually only extended as far south as
modern day Ocala. However, at times some of the Tampa Bay groups may have been ruled by a Timucua chief named Urriparacox
who temporarily extended his range of influence.
All of the Tampa Bay inhabitants relied heavily on water animals and
plants for food, but also hunted and gathered on land. Of all these groups, only the Tocobaga planted corn.
from: Pelotes Island Nature Reserve: Who Were the Tocobago Indians?